Tech Terms | Abbreviations A–Z


Cache   CCITT   Clean URL   Client   Client-Side-Scanning   Compiler   Computer   CMS   CSS

Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache (/kæʃ/  KASH) is a hardware or software component that stores data so that future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation or a copy of data stored elsewhere. A cache hit occurs when the requested data can be found in a cache, while a cache miss occurs when it cannot. Cache hits are served by reading data from the cache, which is faster than recomputing a result or reading from a slower data store; thus, the more requests that can be served from the cache, the faster the system performs.

To be cost-effective, caches must be relatively small. Nevertheless, caches are effective in many areas of computing because typical computer applications access data with a high degree of locality of reference. Such access patterns exhibit temporal locality, where data is requested that has been recently requested, and spatial locality, where data is requested that is stored near data that has already been requested.

This article is based on the article Cache_(computing) from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.


(french abbr.): Comit´e Consultatif International T´el´egraphique et T´el´ephonique. Founded international organisation in 1932 to elect worldwide standards for data- and telecommunication. Gives references and defines standards for telecommunication. The CCITT is made up of national authorities, companies and national as well as international scientific organisations.
The older users of computers know some of the standards defined from the CCITT as an example the V.- and X.-standard.
The CCITT was merged 1993 as ITU.

Clean URL

also sometimes referred to as Pretty URLs, RESTful URLs, user-friendly URLs, or search engine-friendly URLs, are Uniform Resource Locators (URLs) intended to improve the usability and accessibility of a website or web service by being immediately and intuitively meaningful to non-expert users. Such URL schemes tend to reflect the conceptual structure of a collection of information and decouple the user interface from a server's internal representation of information. Other reasons for using clean URLs include search engine optimization (SEO), conforming to the representational state transfer (REST) style of software architecture, and ensuring that individual web resources remain consistently at the same URL. This makes the World Wide Web a more stable and useful system, and allows more durable and reliable bookmarking of web resources.

Clean URLs also do not contain implementation details of the underlying web application. This carries the benefit of reducing the difficulty of changing the implementation of the resource at a later date. For example, many URLs include the filename of a server-side script, such as example.php, example.asp or cgi-bin. If the underlying implementation of a resource is changed, such URLs would need to change along with it. Likewise, when URLs are not "clean", if the site database is moved or restructured it has the potential to cause broken links, both internally and from external sites, the latter of which can lead to removal from search engine listings. The use of clean URLs presents a consistent location for resources to user-agents regardless of internal structure. A further potential benefit to the use of clean URLs is that the concealment of internal server or application information can improve the security of a system.

Eh? What? Didn't you get it? Here again in simple language:
My personal short explanation for Pretty URL: easy-to-remember web address as a “talking name” like these:

This article is based on the article Clean_URL from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.


Computer, connected via a network to a Server.

Client-Side Scanning (CSS)

05.08.2021: Apple announces new functions for child protection.
For this purpose, a scanning technique for the local search for hash values of files was developed, which is to be distributed to all devices with one of the next iOS versions.

After worldwide massive criticism by respected experts, Apple has temporarily suspended the project and wants to consult again.

Wanting to abolish tap-proof private communication with perfidious excuses such as the welfare of children (terrorism pretext no longer applies?) is a danger to our democracy!

Famous IT security researchers from all over the world warn (German-language article)


consists of CPU, Monitor, Keyboard. Modern Computers with a graphical User Interface (GUI) you can control with a Mouse.


In computing, a compiler is a computer program that translates computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another language (the target language). The name "compiler" is primarily used for programs that translate source code from a high-level programming language to a lower level language (e.g., assembly language, object code, or machine code) to create an executable program.

However, there are many different types of compilers. If the compiled program can run on a computer whose CPU or operating system is different from the one on which the compiler runs, the compiler is a cross-compiler. A bootstrap compiler is written in the language that it intends to compile. A program that translates from a low-level language to a higher level one is a decompiler. A program that translates between high-level languages is usually called a source-to-source compiler or transcompiler. A language rewriter is usually a program that translates the form of expressions without a change of language. The term compiler-compiler refers to tools used to create parsers that perform syntax analysis.

A compiler is likely to perform many or all of the following operations: preprocessing, lexical analysis, parsing, semantic analysis (syntax-directed translation), conversion of input programs to an intermediate representation, code optimization and code generation. Compilers implement these operations in phases that promote efficient design and correct transformations of source input to target output. Program faults caused by incorrect compiler behavior can be very difficult to track down and work around; therefore, compiler implementers invest significant effort to ensure compiler correctness.

Compilers are not the only language processor used to transform source programs. An interpreter is computer software that transforms and then executes the indicated operations. The translation process influences the design of computer languages, which leads to a preference of compilation or interpretation. In practice, an interpreter can be implemented for compiled languages and compilers can be implemented for interpreted languages.

This article is based on the article Compiler from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

Content Management System

(abbr.: CMS): a software application that can be used to manage the creation and modification of digital content. CMSs are typically used for enterprise content management (ECM) and web content management (WCM). ECM typically supports multiple users in a collaborative environment by integrating document management, digital asset management and record retention. Alternatively, WCM is the collaborative authoring for websites and may include text and embed graphics, photos, video, audio, maps and program code that display content and interact with the user. ECM typically includes a WCM function.

CMS attaches particular importance to media-neutral data storage. For example, content can be retrieved as a PDF or HTML document if desired; in fully dynamic systems, the formats are only generated from the database when the query is made.
Even some sophisticated hobby websites such as make use of the advantages of a CMS.Zwinkerndes Smiley

This article is based on the article Content_management_system from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.


Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used for specifying the presentation and styling of a document written in a markup language such as HTML or XML (including XML dialects such as SVGMathML or XHTML). CSS is a cornerstone technology of the World Wide Web, alongside HTML and JavaScript.

CSS is designed to enable the separation of content and presentation, including layoutcolors, and fonts. This separation can improve content accessibility; provide more flexibility and control in the specification of presentation characteristics; enable multiple web pages to share formatting by specifying the relevant CSS in a separate .css file, which reduces complexity and repetition in the structural content; and enable the .css file to be cached to improve the page load speed between the pages that share the file and its formatting.

Separation of formatting and content also makes it feasible to present the same markup page in different styles for different rendering methods, such as on-screen, in print, by voice (via speech-based browser or screen reader), and on Braille-based tactile devices. CSS also has rules for alternate formatting if the content is accessed on a mobile device.

The name cascading comes from the specified priority scheme to determine which style rule applies if more than one rule matches a particular element. This cascading priority scheme is predictable.

The CSS specifications are maintained by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Internet media type (MIME typetext/css is registered for use with CSS by RFC 2318 (March 1998). The W3C operates a free CSS validation service for CSS documents.

In addition to HTML, other markup languages support the use of CSS including XHTMLplain XMLSVG, and XUL. CSS is also used in the GTK widget toolkit.

This article is based on the article CSS from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

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