Glossary

Tech Terms | Abbreviations A–Z

A


AES   AMR-WB   AP   Android OS   Apple iOS   Apps   ASCII   Antisocial Media   Antisocial Networks


Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), also known by its original name Rijndael (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈrɛindaːl]), is a specification for the encryption of electronic data established by the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in 2001.
AES is a variant of the Rijndael block cipher developed by two Belgian cryptographers, Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen, who submitted a proposal[7] to NIST during the AES selection process. Rijndael is a family of ciphers with different key and block sizes. For AES, NIST selected three members of the Rijndael family, each with a block size of 128 bits, but three different key lengths: 128, 192 and 256 bits.

AES has been adopted by the U.S. government. It supersedes the Data Encryption Standard (DES), which was published in 1977. The algorithm described by AES is a symmetric-key algorithm, meaning the same key is used for both encrypting and decrypting the data.

In the United States, AES was announced by the NIST as U.S. FIPS PUB 197 (FIPS 197) on November 26, 2001. This announcement followed a five-year standardization process in which fifteen competing designs were presented and evaluated, before the Rijndael cipher was selected as the most suitable.

AES is included in the ISO/IEC 18033-3 standard. AES became effective as a U.S. federal government standard on May 26, 2002, after approval by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce. AES is available in many different encryption packages, and is the first (and only) publicly accessible cipherapproved by the U.S. National Security Agency (NSA) for top secret information when used in an NSA approved cryptographic module.

This article is based on the article Advanced_Encryption_Standard from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

AMR-WB

(Abbr.:) Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband is a patented wideband speech coding standard developed based on Adaptive Multi-Rate encoding, using similar methodology as Algebraic Code Excited Linear Prediction (ACELP). AMR-WB provides improved speech quality due to a wider speech bandwidth of 50–7000 Hz compared to narrowband speech coders which in general are optimized for POTS wireline quality of 300–3400 Hz.

AMR-WB was developed by Nokia and VoiceAge and it was first specified by 3GPP.

AMR-WB is codified as G.722.2, an ITU-T standard speech codec, formally known as Wideband coding of speech at around 16 kbit/s using Adaptive Multi-Rate Wideband (AMR-WB). G.722.2 AMR-WB is the same codec as the 3GPP AMR-WB. The corresponding 3GPP specifications are TS 26.190 for the speech codec and TS 26.194 for the Voice Activity Detector.

AMR-WB codec has the following parameters:
Delay frame size: 20 ms
Look ahead: 5ms
Complexity: 38 WMOPS, RAM 5.3KWords
Voice activity detection, Discontinuous Transmission, Comfort Noise Generator
Fixed point: Bit-exact C
Floating point: under work.

A common file extension for AMR-WB file format is .awb. There also exists another storage format for AMR-WB that is suitable for applications with more advanced demands on the storage format, like random access or synchronisation with video. This format is the 3GPP-specified 3GP container format based on ISO base media file format. 3GP also allows use of AMR-WB bit streams for stereo sound.

This article is based on the article Adaptive_Multi-Rate_Wideband from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

AP

(Abbr.:) Access Point. Base Station in a wireless network (see also WLAN).

Android OS

Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other open-source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. Android is developed by a consortium of developers known as the Open Handset Alliance, though its most widely used version is primarily developed by Google. It was unveiled in November 2007, with the first commercial Android device, the HTC Dream, being launched in September 2008.

At its core, the operating system is known as the Android Open Source Project (AOSP) and is free and open-source software (FOSS) primarily licensed under the Apache License. However, most devices run on the proprietary Android version developed by Google, which ships with additional proprietary closed-source software pre-installed, most notably Google Mobile Services (GMS) which includes core apps such as Google Chrome, the digital distribution platform Google Play and the associated Google Play Servicesdevelopment platform. Firebase Cloud Messaging is used for push notifications. While AOSP is free, the "Android" name and logo are trademarks of Google, which imposes standards to restrict the use of Android branding by "uncertified" devices outside their ecosystem.

Over 70 percent of smartphones based on the Android Open Source Project run Google's ecosystem (which is known simply as Android), some with vendor-customized user interfaces and software suites, such as TouchWiz and later One UI by Samsung and HTC Sense. Competing ecosystems and forks of AOSP include Fire OS (developed by Amazon), ColorOS by Oppo, OriginOS by Vivo, MagicUI by Honor, or custom ROMs such as LineageOS.

The source code has been used to develop variants of Android on a range of other electronics, such as game consoles, digital cameras, portable media players, and PCs, each with a specialized user interface. Some well-known derivatives include Android TV for televisions and Wear OS for wearables, both developed by Google. Software packages on Android, which use the APK format, are generally distributed through proprietary application stores like Google Play Store, Amazon Appstore, Samsung Galaxy Store, Huawei AppGallery, Cafe Bazaar, GetJar, and Aptoide, or open source platforms like F-Droid.

Android has been the best-selling OS worldwide on smartphones since 2011 and on tablets since 2013. As of May 2021, it had over three billion monthly active users, the largest installed base of any operating system in the world, and as of January 2021, the Google Play Store featured over 3 million apps. Android 14, released on October 4, 2023, is the latest version, and the recently released Android 12.1/12L includes improvements specific to foldable phones, tablets, desktop-sized screens and Chromebooks.

This article is based on the article Android_(operating_system) from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

Apple iOS

iOS (formerly iPhone OS) is a mobile operating system created and developed by Apple Inc. exclusively for its hardware. It is the operating system that powers many of the company's mobile devices, including the iPhone and iPod Touch; it also powered the iPad until the introduction of iPadOS, a derivative of iOS, in 2019. It is the world's second-most widely installed mobile operating system, after Android. It is the basis for three other operating systems made by Apple: iPadOS, tvOS, and watchOS. It is proprietary software, although some parts of it are open source under the Apple Public Source License and other licenses.

Unveiled in 2007 for the first-generation iPhone, iOS has since been extended to support other Apple devices such as the iPod Touch (September 2007) and the iPad (January 2010). As of March 2018, Apple's App Store contains more than 2.1 million iOS applications, 1 million of which are native for iPads. These mobile apps have collectively been downloaded more than 130 billion times.

Major versions of iOS are released annually. The current stable version, iOS 14, was released to the public on September 16, 2020. It brought many user interface changes, including the ability to place widgets on the home screen, a compact UI for both Siri and phone calls, and the ability to change both the default web browser and email apps. No devices were dropped, as all devices supported by iOS 13 are able to run iOS 14.

This article is based on the article IOS from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

Apps

(Abbr.:) Abbreviation of "Applications". Software for smart phones (see also Smartphone) and hand-held computer (see also PDA).

ASCII

(Abbr.:) The American Standard Code for Information Interchange
(ASCII /'æski/ ASS-kee) is a character-encoding scheme originally based on the english alphabet that encodes 128 specified characters – the numbers 0-9, the letters a-z and A-Z, some basic punctuation symbols, some control codes that originated with Teletype machines, and a blank space – into the 7-bit binary integers.

ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text. Most modern character-encoding schemes are based on ASCII, though they support many additional characters.

!"#$%&'()*+,-./0123456789:;<=>?
@ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ[\]^_
`abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz{|}~

This article is based on the article ASCII from the free encyclopedia Wikipedia and is licensed under Creative Commons CC-BY-SA 3.0 Unported (short version). A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.

Antisocial Media

Most social media providers break with market conventions. That is legal. They disregard existing laws again and again. That is illegal. They earn billions with the free content work of their customers. That is antisocial!

Antisocial Networks

I'm not the only one who calls the big “social networks” that, because they are already not as social as they should be. My search result at duckduckgo.com for “social networks” already revealed who this networking serves most: marketing and advertising. So anyone who hangs out in such networks is cannibalised and sold data-wise. In addition, many users lose all sense of appropriate behaviour. They use aggressive language and insult other discussion participants. In the antisocial networks, it is not about exchange at all, but about self-promotion. F.c.book & Co. are predominantly pure ego events. That is the opposite of social: antisocial.

One's social value is measured in the number of “friends”, the so-called “followers”. And you collect “likes” with posts. The crazier a post, the more “likes” it gets and the more often it is forwarded. False reports are also spread in this way. That is antisocial.
People who wouldn't even greet each other on the street call each other “friends” in “social networks”. That is antisocial.

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Keyword list: 2010, 2013, A, AES, AMR, AMR-WB, AP, ASCII, AWB, Access Point, Android, Apple iOS, Apps, Browser, Computer, F-Droid, Glossary, Google Chrome, Google Play, Hardware, IT, ITU, Mobile Apps, Network, Open Source, PDA, Providers, RAM, Services, Smartphone, Smartphones, Software, Storage, User, WLAN, Web Browser, Who, Widgets, iPhone

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